Amazon RDS Monitoring


Amazon RDS - An Overview

Amazon Relational Database Service (or Amazon RDS) is a distributed relational database service by Amazon Web Services (AWS). It is a web service running "in the cloud" designed to simplify the setup, operation, and scaling of a relational database for use in applications. Amazon RDS supports an array of database engines to store and organize data and helps with database management tasks, such as migration, backup, recovery and patching.

Amazon RDS is available on several database instance types - optimized for memory, performance or I/O - and provides you with six familiar database engines to choose from, including Amazon Aurora, PostgreSQL, MySQL, MariaDB, Oracle Database, and SQL Server.

Creating a new Amazon Monitor

Prerequisites for setting up Amazon monitoring: Click Here.

To create a new Amazon monitor, follow the steps given below:

  1. Click on New Monitor link.

  2. Select Amazon under Cloud Apps category.

  3. Specify the Display Name of the Amazon server

  4. Select RDS from the Amazon Services drop-down menu.

  5. Enter the Access Key Id of the AWS for accessing the AWS through the API. The access key has 20 alpha-numeric characters.

  6. Enter the Secret Access Key of the AWS. The secret key should be 40 alpha-numeric characters long.

  7. Choose the Account Type. The default Account Type when adding a new Amazon monitor is AWS Global. Choose AWS China as the Account Type to monitor services in the AWS China regions.

  8. Specify the Polling Interval in minutes.

  9. If you are adding a new monitor from an Admin Server, select a Managed Server.

  10. Choose the Monitor Group with which you want to associate the Amazon monitor to, from the combo box (optional). You can choose multiple groups to associate your monitor.

  11. Click Add Monitor(s). This discovers the Amazon server from the network and starts monitoring it.

Applications Manager automatically discovers all the EC2 and RDS instances, and S3 buckets under your Amazon account. You can then enable monitoring for those instances and buckets as per your requirement.

Use Add Monitor API to add a new Amazon Monitor

Syntax

http://[Host]:[Port]/AppManager/xml/AddMonitor?apikey=[APIKEY]&type=[TYPE]&AmazonServices=[AmazonServices]&accessKey=[ACCESSKEY]&SecretAccessKey=[SECRETACCESSKEY]&displayname=[DISPLAYNAME]&AccountType=[account type]

Request Parameters:

The parameters involved in the API request are described below. Also, refer the list of common Request Parameters.

FieldDescription
type The type of the monitor you want to add. Value should be Amazon
accessKey The Access Key Id of the AWS for accessing the AWS through the API.
SecretAccessKey The secret access key of the AWS.
AccountType

The account type. Possible Values are

  • AwsGlobal
  • AwsChina
AmazonServices

The Amazon Services that you want to monitor. Possible values are:

  • EC2 (for Elastic Compute Cloud)
  • RDS (for Relational Database Services)
  • S3 (for S3 Buckets)
  • SNS (for Simple Notification Services)
  • DYNAMODB,EC2,RDS,S3,SNS (for multiple services)

Sample Request:

http://localhost:9595/AppManager/xml/AddMonitor?apikey=15212eb94d705a3b0993e30709818c4e&type=Amazon&AmazonServices=DYNAMODB,EC2,RDS,S3,SNS&accessKey=AKIAIV2PL2VNMIAUOXCA&SecretAccessKey=FECP%2BgNtMcTlWSs05S6ubC/hl6oGwSowmOBP2uNx&displayname=awsrestapi&AccountType=AwsGlobal

Monitored Parameters

Amazon RDS Instances are monitored based on the parameters or the attributes listed below. These attributes provide information about the functioning of the RDS instance. You can also configure thresholds to the numerical attributes based on these details and get notified when the thresholds are violated.

Go to the Monitors Category View by clicking the Monitors tab. Click on the RDS Instance of Amazon monitors under the Cloud Apps Table. Displayed is the Amazon RDS bulk configuration view distributed into three tabs:

  • Availability tab displays the Availability history of the RDS instances for the past 24 hours or 30 days.
  • Performance tab displays the Health Status and key performance indicators of an RDS instance such as CPU Utilization, Free Storage Space, Database Connections and Write Throughput along with the heat charts for these attributes for the past 24 hours or 30 days.
  • List view displays all the RDS instances present in the Amazon account along with an overall idea of their availability and health status. The list view also enables you to perform bulk admin configurations.

The metrics monitored are categorized into 2 tabs for easy understanding. Below is an explanation of the metrics displayed in the differnet tabs:

Note: The metrics marked with an * are collected using Amazon's Cloudwatch

Monitor Information

ParameterDescription
Monitor Information  
Name The name of the RDS instance.
Region The ID of AWS region where the current RDS instance is running.
Region Name The name of the region where the RDS instance is running.
Instance Type Indicates the type of instance
Created Time The time when the instance was created.
State

The current state of the instance. The values include:

  • running
  • stopped
  • shutdown
  • terminated
DB Engine Name The name of the database engine associated with this instance
Last Polled at Specifies the time at which the last poll was performed.
Next Poll at Specifies the time at which the next poll is scheduled.
Associated Groups The groups to which the monitor is associated.

Overview

This tab provides a high-level overview of the RDS Instance as well as its resource utilization.

Metric
Description
Supported Engines
Aurora PgSQL
Aurora MySQL
Other engine types
CPU Utilization(%) * The percentage of CPU utilization.
Database Connections * The number of database connections in use.
Free Memory(GB)  
Free Storage Space(%) * The amount of available storage space.
Free Local Storage(GB) The amount of local storage that is free on an Aurora instance.
Swap Usage(MB) The amount of swap space used on the DB Instance.

Disk I/O

Metric
Description
Supported Engines
Aurora PgSQL
Aurora MySQL
Other engine types
Read Latency(Seconds) * The average amount of time taken per disk read I/O operation in seconds.
Read Ops(Ops/Sec) * The average number of disk read I/O operations per second.
Read Throughput(Bytes/Sec) * The average number of bytes read from disk per second.
Write Latency(Seconds) * The average amount of time taken per disk write I/O operation.
Write Ops(Ops/Sec) * The average number of disk write I/O operations per second.
Write Throughput(Bytes/Sec) * The average number of bytes written to disk per second.
Used Volume(GB) The amount of storage in bytes used by the Aurora database.
Volume Read IOPs(Ops/Sec) The number of billed read I/O operations from a cluster volume, reported at 5-minute intervals.
Volume Write IOPs(Ops/Sec) The average number of write disk I/O operations to the cluster volume reported at 5-minute intervals.

Network

Metric
Description
Supported Engines
Aurora PgSQL
Aurora MySQL
Other engine types
Incoming traffic(kB/s) The incoming (Receive) network traffic on the DB instance.
Outgoing traffic(kB/s) The outgoing (Transmit) network traffic on the DB instance.

Aurora DB

Amazon Aurora is a relational database engine from Amazon Web Services, available as part of the Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS). Being MySQL and PostgreSQL - compatible and built for the cloud, Amazon Aurora provides security, availability, and reliability with the simplicity of open source databases.

Metric
Description
Supported Engines
Aurora PgSQL
Aurora MySQL
Other engine types
Active Transactions The average rate of current transactions executing on a DB instance.
Blocked Transactions The average rate of transactions in the database that are blocked.
Bin Logs Disk Usage(MB) The amount of disk space occupied by binary logs on the master.
Transaction Logs Disk Usage(MB) The amount of disk space occupied by transaction logs.
Buffer Cache Hit Ratio(%) The percentage of requests that are served by the Buffer cache.
ResultSet Cache Hit Ratio(%) The percentage of requests that are served by the Resultset cache.
Deadlocks The average number of deadlocks in the database per second.
Aurora ReplicaLag(ms) The average lag when replicating updates from the primary instance. This metric will be populated only for Aurora cluster 'Reader' and similarly 'ReplicaLag Minimum and Maximum' will be populated only for Aurora Cluster 'Writer' role instances.
ReplicaLag Maximum(ms) The maximum amount of lag between the primary instance and each Aurora instance in the DB cluster.
ReplicaLag Minimum(ms) The minimum amount of lag between the primary instance and each Aurora instance in the DB cluster.
Note: The Aurora Replica Lag metric will be populated only for Aurora cluster 'Reader'. The ReplicaLag Minimum/Maximum will be populated only for Aurora Cluster 'Writer' role instances.

DB Operations

Metric
Description
Supported Engines
Aurora PgSQL
Aurora MySQL
Other engine types
Commit Latency(ms) The amount of latency for committed transactions.
Commit Throughput(Ops/Sec) The average rate of committed transactions.
DDL Latency(ms) The amount of latency for DDL requests (create/alter/drop).
DDL Throughput(Ops/Sec) The average rate of DDL requests per second.
Delete Latency(ms) The average latency for delete queries.
Delete Throughput(Ops/Sec) The average rate of delete queries.
Insert Latency(ms) The amount of latency for insert queries.
Insert Throughput(Ops/Sec) The average rate of insert queries.
Number of Queries(Queries/sec) The average rate of queries executed per second.
Select Latency(ms) The average latency for select queries.
Select Throughput(Ops/Sec) The average rate of select queries.
Update Latency(ms) The average latency for update queries.
Update Throughput(Ops/Sec) The average rate of update queries.

Replication

This tab will be shown only if a RDS Instance has a source DB Instance identifier in the configuration details,

Metric
Description
Supported Engines
Aurora PgSQL
Aurora MySQL
Other engine types
Replication lag The amount of time a Read Replica DB instance lags behind the source DB instance. Applies to MySQL, MariaDB, and PostgreSQL Read Replicas.
Replication Source The source DB instance.
Source Region The AWS Region that the encrypted Read Replica is created in.
Source ARN The Amazon Resource Name of the source.
Replication Status Type  
Replication Status  

Configuration

This tab provides the configuration details of the RDS instance.

Metric
Description
Supported Engines
Aurora PgSQL
Aurora MySQL
Other engine types
CONFIGURATION DETAILS
Instance ID The unique key that identifies the instance.
DBInstance ARN The Amazon Resource Name for the source DB instance.
DB Engine Name The name of the database engine used for this instance.
Engine Version The database engine version.
Created Time The time when the instance was created.
DB Name The name of the initial database created when the instance was created.
Master User Name The master username for the instance.
License Model The license model information for the DB instance.
INSTANCE DETAILS
Instance Type The type of instance.
Storage Type The storage type to be associated with the DB instance.
Allocated Storage (GB) The storage space initially allocated to this instance in GB.
Storage Encrypted Specifies the encryption status of the DB instance.
State The current status of the instance. Valid values include available, backing-up, creating, deleted, deleting, failed, modifying, rebooting and resetting-master-credentials.
Multi(A-Z) Deployment Indicates if this is a Multi-AZ DB Instance.
Region Name The name of AWS region where the current DynamoDB table resides.
SECURITY AND NETWORK
Availability Zone The instance's availability zone.
Publicly Accessible Specifies if the DB instance is marked as publicly accessible.
Endpoint Address The DNS Address of the DB instance.
Endpoint Port The port used to connect to the DB instance.
MAINTENANCE DETAILS
Preferred Maintenance Window The period during which patching and instance modifications will be performed.
Latest Restorable Time The latest time to which a database can be restored using point-in-time restore.
Backup Retention Period The number of days that automated backups are retained before deletion.
Preferred Backup Window The daily period during which automated backups are created.
CLUSTER CONFIGURATION
Aurora Cluster Name The name of the Aurora cluster to which the RDS instance belongs to.
Cluster ARN The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) for the DB cluster.
Cluster Endpoint The endpoint for an Aurora DB cluster that connects to the current primary DB instance for that DB cluster.
Cluster Reader Endpoint The endpoint for an Aurora DB cluster that connects to one of the available Aurora Replicas for that DB cluster.
Cluster Created Time The time when the DB cluster was created
Cluster Instance Role The role that is associated with the DB instance. [Reader/ Writer]
Cluster Group status The current state of this DB cluster group.